(2) Reasonably stable market share. Since export quotas generally distribute markets in proportion to national shares over a given reference period, difficulties arise when there are sudden or longer-term changes in the shares held by different producing countries. The gradual ouster of U.S. raw cotton by exports from other countries, reinforced by the development of synthetic fibres, prevented the negotiation of an international cotton agreement in the post-war period and the increase in the volume of exports from African countries seriously complicated the negotiations of the 1962 International Coffee Agreement. The second agreement was signed in 1963, with the participation of 11 members, 7 of whom were exporting countries and 4 importing countries. The duration of the agreement was 4 years. An International Olive Council was established in 1963 to carry out studies on the olive oil market, production and prices, etc. These agreements were aimed at stabilizing prices through price controls. Economic impact . International commodity agreements suffer from the different boundaries that characterize all efforts to artificially support the market position of certain raw materials. In particular, price targets tend to be overestimated, long-term elasticities of demand and supply tend to be underestimated, and cost structures tend to develop so that favourable effects on producer income are at best temporary. The longevity of agreements is therefore not necessarily a virtue and, in the case of sugar, it is only through the ineffectiveness of the main provisions relating to export quotas during periods (especially at high prices) that when an agreement on market share has proved impossible.
(1) Inelastic request. If narrow substitutes are available, it is certain that market-priced assistance for individual products will have immediate and very detrimental effects. The presence of synthetic rubber explains the total absence of a post-war agreement for the natural product; Agreements restricting the use of the agreement for individual olive trees are excluded by the existence of a large list of alternative seeds and by competition with butter; but since 1937 sugar has borrowed a continuous succession of agreements.